CONGESTIVE CARDIAC FAILURE – A DETAIL REVIEW
Uthkarsha Vinesh*, Dr. Divyashree N., Nikhil Kurian, Nivya P. S., Vanendra Yadav S. and Nandan H. N.
Congestive cardiac failure (CCF) is a common clinical disorder that results in pulmonary vascular congestion and reduced cardiac output. CCF should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any adult patient who presents with dyspnea and/or respiratory failure. The diagnosis of heart failure is often determined by a careful history and physical examination and characteristic chest radiograph findings. The measurement of serum brain natriuretic peptide and echocardiography have substantially improved the accuracy of diagnosis. Therapy for CCF is directed at restoring normal cardiopulmonary physiology and reducing the hyperadrenergic state. The cornerstone of treatment is a combination of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor and slow titration of a ?-blocker. Patients with CCF are prone to pulmonary complications, including obstructive sleep apnea, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusions. Continuous positive airway pressure and noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation benefit patients in CCF exacerbations.[Full Text Article]