World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (WJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Index Copernicus , SOCOLAR, China , Indian Science Publications , Cosmos Impact Factor , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , International Impact Factor Services , International Society for Research Activity (ISRA) Journal Impact Factor (JIF) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Scientific Journal Impact Factor (SJIF) , Global Impact Factor (In Process) , Digital Online Identifier-Database System (DOI-DS) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Scientific Indexing, (ISI) UAE , IFSIJ Measure of Journal Quality , 

World Journal of Pharmaceutical
and Medical Research

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical and Medical Research and Technology
An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)
ISSN 2455-3301

ICV : 78.6



Uthkarsha Vinesh*, Dr. Divyashree N., Nikhil Kurian, Nivya P. S., Vanendra Yadav S. and Nandan H. N.


Congestive cardiac failure (CCF) is a common clinical disorder that results in pulmonary vascular congestion and reduced cardiac output. CCF should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any adult patient who presents with dyspnea and/or respiratory failure. The diagnosis of heart failure is often determined by a careful history and physical examination and characteristic chest radiograph findings. The measurement of serum brain natriuretic peptide and echocardiography have substantially improved the accuracy of diagnosis. Therapy for CCF is directed at restoring normal cardiopulmonary physiology and reducing the hyperadrenergic state. The cornerstone of treatment is a combination of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor and slow titration of a ?-blocker. Patients with CCF are prone to pulmonary complications, including obstructive sleep apnea, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusions. Continuous positive airway pressure and noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation benefit patients in CCF exacerbations.

[Full Text Article]

Powered By WJPMR | All Right Reserved