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World Journal of Pharmaceutical
and Medical Research

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical and Medical Research and Technology
An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)
ISSN 2455-3301

ICV : 78.6



Dr. Yasir Hakim*, Dalia Hamza Mohammed, Yasir Abdelrahim, Asad Adam Abbas, Mutaman Ali A. Kehail, Abubaker Talha


Kidney stones are the most common disease of the urinary tract affecting about 10% of the global population. These unwanted mineral aggregates can result in extreme pain and morbidity, and in some cases may lead to high blood pressure and increase the risk for coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus. Kidney stone disease may occur from either derangements of urine biochemistries or anatomic abnormalities of kidneys and urinary tract. Genetic, environmental and dietary factors may also cooperate in the patophysiology of nephrolithiasis. The stones cause severe pain and are also associated with morbidity and kidney damage. There is also no clear understanding on the relative metabolic composition of kidney stones. The purpose of this study was to define the relationship between dietary habits and incidence of stone formation and to perform the chemical analysis of stones to know the pattern of chemical composition of stones in Sudanese subjects. Forty eight renal stone samples were analyzed during the period of January – June, 2015. Those patients were referred to Gezira Hospital for Renal Disease and Surgery (GHRDS), Gezira State, Sudan. The stones were analyzed by semi quantitative method in Gezira Central Laboratory. Kits were used for chemical analysis of stones. Calcium, Phosphate, Oxalate, Uric acid, carbonate and cystine were determined. The results of this study revealed that, male to female ratio was 2:1,Majority of the patients were non-vegetarian 89.5% and many of them 56.2% consumed more salted foods. Water consumption amount revealed that, 45.8% of the patients consumed 1.0 liter of water per day. Frequency of consumption of food stuffs revealed that it varied from weekly to rarely for most of the items from various selected categories. Calcium (%72.8), oxalate (%60.4) and uric acid (%27) were the most common, phosphate (10%), Carbonate (6%) and cystine which found only in (2%) of the study samples. The relative frequency of calcium oxalate stone were about (70.8%) out numbers other types which was compatible with the international literature. While there is relative high percentage of uric stones were about (%29.1) which can be explained by the high animal protein consumption in Sudan together with the hot weather which can be a cause of highly concentrated urine. The study recommends analyzing the kidney stones routinely for both sexes for better understanding of the mechanisms involved in lithogenesis.

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