DISTRIBUTION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT BACTERIA FLORA IN READY TO-EAT FOOD SAMPLES SOLD IN CALABAR METROPOLIS
Ashang U.J., Antai S.P. and Tiku D.R.
The distribution of antibiotic resistant bacteria flora in ready-to-eat food samples sold in Calabar metropolis was investigated. Thirty (30) samples of different ready-to-eat food samples (cooked indomic, sausage rolls, egg-roll, bean cake, fried meat and fish) were purchased at the point of sales in various eateries located in University of Calabar campus, Watt Market and Marian market and were placed into sterile specimen bottles with screw caps, labeled and transported immediately to the laboratory in an ice-packed container for further analysis. The study was completed within a duration of six months. All the procedures were carried out using standard microbiological techniques. The results of the study revealed the presence of Pseudomonas spp, Escherichia spp, Bacillus spp , Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter spp Klebsiella spp, Proteus spp and Shigella spp. Escherichia coli had the highest percentage of occurrence (17.83%) compared to other bacterial isolate in the analyzed ready-to-eat food samples that had; Klebsiella spp (15.50%), Salmonella spp (14.72%), Enterobacter spp (6.98%), Proteus spp (10.85%), Shigella spp (9.30%), Bacillus spp (4.65%), Pseudomonas spp (6.89%) and Staphylococcus aureus (6.20%). Bacteria isolates from the analyzed read-to-eat food samples showed a higher percentage resistance to augmentin (100%) and amoxicillin (100%) compared to other antibiotics tested against Cotrimoxazole (55.56%) nitrofurantoin (66.67%), gentamycin (66.67%) ofloxacin (44.44%), tetracycline (55.56%), ciprofloxacin (77.78%) and nalidxic acid (22.22%). Among the bacteria isolates from the ready-to-eat food samples, Staphylococcus aureus had the highest percentage resistant to the antibiotics tested against (Ceftriazone, amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, augmentin and tetracycline) while Klebsiella spp and Shigella spp showed sensitivity to all the antibiotics tested against. However, the study has revealed the distribution and occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistance among bacteria isolates in ready-to-eat food samples sold in Calabar Metropolis. Thus, there is need for good sanitary practices, and intensive surveillance of isolates throughout food pre- and post production stages so as to reduce or eliminate cases of food borne infections, as well as to also detect emerging antimicrobial resistance bacterial phenotypes.[Full Text Article]