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World Journal of Pharmaceutical
and Medical Research

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical and Medical Research and Technology
An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)
ISSN 2455-3301
IMPACT FACTOR: 4.103

ICV : 78.6

Abstract

METABOLIC ANALYSES OF NODDING SYNDROME IN UGANDA: A PILOT STUDY IS A BIOTINIDASE AND ACETYL CARNITINE DEFICIENCY; A METABOLIC DISORDER. AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY DESIGN

Anywar Arony Denis, Peter Galloway, Angwech Collines, Makumbi Edward Frederick and
*Dr. Prof. Kitara Lagoro David

ABSTRACT

Background: Nodding Syndrome (NS) is a childhood neurological disorder which presents with a “head nodding”, cognitive decline, wasting, stunting and school dropout. We conducted a metabolic analysis on NS children receiving treatment at Hope for HumaNs (HfH) rehabilitation centre in Gulu, Uganda. Methods: We conducted a biochemical analysis on 48 NS children’s blood and urine samples collected in 2014 as part of a pilot study. Ethical approval was obtained from Lacor IRB and STATA was used for data analysis. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Most 37/47(78.7%) had low mean biotinidase (95% CI) of 1.98(1.62, 3.92). Similarly, mean acetyl carnitine level was low 4.68(5.77, 9.49), and BMI-for-age, 16.9(16.1, 17.7), MUAC 19.89(19.02, 20.76), normal urate concentration 0.23(0.20, 0.25), normal urate/creatinine ratio 0.25(0.20, 0.30). All NS children with data on propionyl carnitine and butyryl carnitine levels were high and 43/47(91.5%) had normal free plasma carnitine level. Conclusion: NS is a childhood neurological disorder whose cause is not known. This study demonstrated biotinidase and Acetyl carnitine deficiency and elevated levels of proprionyl carnitine (C3) and Butyryl carnitine (C4) suggesting a possibility of a probable metabolic aetiology. Result of our interventional study suggests biotin supplementation improves symptoms of NS.

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